Arginine 16 Glycine Polymorphism in β2-Adrenergic Receptor Gene is Associated with Obesity, Hyperlipidemia, Hyperleptinemia, and Insulin Resistance in Saudis

Abstract

Background. Several studies have shown an association between codon 16 polymorphism of the β2AR gene and obesity. Methods. We studied the association between Arg16Gly polymorphism and obesity and its influence on anthropometric parameters, lipids, insulin resistance and leptin in Saudi individuals. The study group included 329 individuals (males: 109 and females: 220). Metabolic parameters, including glucose, lipids, insulin, and leptin were analyzed and anthropometric parameters including waist and hip circumference, waist/hip (W/H) ratio, and body mass index (BMI) were measured and HOMA-IR was calculated. Genotyping was conducted by DNA sequencing of 353 bp fragments, carrying the Arg16Gly polymorphic site. Results and Conclusion. Overweight and obese subjects had a significantly higher frequency of Gly16 (0.375 and 0.38, resp.) compared with normal-weight subjects (0.200). In addition, subjects carrying Gly16 allele regardless of their BMI had greater waist and hip circumference, W/H ratio, plasma lipids, leptin, glucose level, and insulin resistance as judged from the HOMA-IR, compared to those with the wild-type allele. The findings of this study show a significant association between the Arg16Gly polymorphism in β2AR gene and the development of insulin resistance, overweight, and obesity in Saudi populations with an influence on the levels of lipid and leptin.

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